Posted on Tuesday, October 31, 2006 - 6:49 pm:     

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以上兩張照片是世界攝影大師 Timothy O'Sullivan,和 Ansel Adams 在 Canyon De Chelly 拍的。左為原作,右是Ansel Adams 摹本。


以下是我最近在同一地方但不同角度拍的,因等級不同,不敢與他們平排。雖然與他們的放在同一頁上,只是為了易于比較和學習。

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http://www.cpluhna.nau.edu/Places/canyon_de_chelly.htm


Canyon de Chelly, Arizona (Page 1 of 3)

Introduction

Canyon de Chelly is an important natural and archaeological area of the Colorado Plateau located in the northeastern corner of Arizona on the Navajo Nation. The canyon walls are formed by petrified sand dunes, deposited when much of southwestern North America was a windswept, lifeless desert during the Permian Era, 230 million years B.P.

Over time, erosion of this sandstone, known as the de Chelly formation, has produced countless caves, alcoves and rock shelters in the canyon walls which were used by Native Americans throughout prehistoric and historic times. In addition to de Chelly, several side canyons of varying size cut into the Defiance Plateau, sheltering well-preserved prehistoric Indian sites. More than a thousand years of human occupation are represented by the many petroglyphs and pictographs found in this dramatic setting, from handprints to shamanistic figures.

James Stevenson, on an 1882 Smithsonian Institution expedition in the region, originally found the remains of prehistoric Indian burials in the largest tributary canyon of Canyon de Chelly, leading to its name, Canyon del Muerto, or "Canyon of the Dead." The name de Chelly is actually an Hispanicized version of the Navajo word for canyon, tséyi', while Tsegi Canyon in nearby Navajo National Monument reflects an Anglicized version.

The meandering steams that carved the canyons originate in the Chuska Mountains to the east. These streams, some of which are ephemeral, are important riparian corridors as they wind their way westward, eventually emptying into Chinle Wash. Except for the last few miles, the streams and tributaries are enclosed by vertical-walled canyons about 1,000 feet high. Almost every vertical canyon wall in de Chelly is stained by dark deposits of manganese and iron oxide. These blue/black and red streamers appear as if they have been painted onto the rock, earning them the name "tapestries."

Temperatures in the de Chelly canyons range from 104°F in the summer to -30°F in the winter. Despite these extremes, the alluvial benches and coves of the canyons provide ideal farming conditions during the growing season. Flash floods often occur after heavy summer rainfall. After these floods retreat, saturated sandy areas on the canyon floor can become quicksand, a dangerous condition that has claimed the lives of numerous animals, including livestock.

Biota of Canyon de Chelly

Vegetation in the region ranges from desert grassland in Chinle Wash to mixed conifer forests at the higher elevations of the Defiance Plateau uplands. Along the canyons' waterways, Fremont cottonwood is the most abundant tree, many of which have been planted by the National Park Service to control erosion. The Park Service also introduced several non-native tree species for the same purpose: tamarisk, Russian olive and peach-leaf willow.

Pinyon-juniper woodlands cover large areas of the surrounding plateaus and have provided an important food source to the canyon's occupants since prehistoric times: the pinyon nut. Other common plants of the area that have been important resources for humans include the yucca for making sandals, baskets and cord, the Rocky Mountain bee plant for black pottery paint, and the western chokecherry for use in Navajo ceremony. Hopi peoples introduced the cultivated peach to the region in the 17th or 18th centuries.

The diverse plant communities of the de Chelly region provide habitats for a variety of animals. Large mammals include mule deer, black bear, coyote, mountain lion, porcupine and badger. Common rodents of the area are jack rabbit, cottontail, Abert's squirrel and pocket gopher. Many resident and migratory birds can be observed in and around the canyon, including golden eagle, turkey vulture, raven and great horned owl. In addition, five amphibian species and eleven reptiles make the canyon their home. Several species have been extirpated from the region since the arrival of Anglos, including grizzly bear, wild turkey, bighorn sheep, beaver, pronghorn antelope and wolf. Beaver and wild turkey have since been reintroduced.

Follow these links to:
Page 2 - Prehistoric Human Occupation
Page 3 - Historic Human Occupation
References


Canyon de Chelly, Arizona (Page 2 of 3)

Prehistoric Human Occupation

There is little evidence of either Paleo-Indian or Archaic occupation of this region, although it was likely used sporadically by these peoples throughout the prehistoric millennia. The nomadic lifestyle of the late Archaic peoples eventually evolved into one of increasing population groups and sedentism, especially as maize became central to subsistence around 500 B.C. By 200 A.D., the Canyon de Chelly area was occupied by peoples we now classify as Basketmaker II. These people made temporary and seasonal shelters, often in the natural protection of the canyon's abundant rock shelters. Many of these shelters could only be reached by scaling the rock face by way of hand-and-toe holds. One such shelter, Mummy Cave, contains evidence of continuous occupation from 200 A.D. through abandonment of the canyon around A.D. 1300.

By 500 A.D., the Basketmaker III culture had evolved. These people lived in small villages composed of several to many pithouses in the canyon bottoms and in the alcoves of the canyon walls. The Basketmakers practiced simple agriculture on the arable lands of the canyons, growing crops of maize and squash irrigated by the canyon streams. They also made baskets, sandals, and other woven articles of fine quality, which have been well documented in the archaeological record at de Chelly. Archaeologists consider these Basketmaker III peoples as representing the first emergence of a distinct culture, the Kayenta Anasazi.

The time period between 700 and 1100 A.D.encompasses the Pueblo I and II Anasazi periods. Above-ground masonry or jacal (wattle-and-daub) pueblo structures became prevalent, first as storage rooms, then later as residences. Pithouses and kivas continued to be important architectural designs. The de Chelly Anasazi added beans and cotton to their agricultural domain, and domesticated dogs and turkeys were kept in the settlements. The Anasazi became skilled weavers of cotton clothing and blankets. Pottery making and the use of the bow and arrow developed during these periods.

It is estimated that the population of Canyon de Chelly increased sixfold between 850 and 1150. This population boom was likely brought about by the success of agriculture in the canyon, which was aided by the favorable climate of this period. Studies of tree rings, fossil pollen and excavated plant fragments indicate that rainfall was especially high between 1050 and 1150. Dry farming on the upland plateaus around the canyons supplemented canyon farming, as did collection of wild plants such as pinyon nuts and cactus fruits, and hunting of wild game animals including rabbit, antelope and bighorn sheep. Pottery made in Mesa Verde, Colorado and Chaco Canyon, New Mexico found at de Chelly sites attests to trade with outside tribes. The use of rock shelters as habitation sites declined throughout this period, a trend which continued into the early Pueblo III period, up to 1250.

In contrast, late Pueblo III times (1250-1300) were characterized by intense cliff dwelling construction, ranging in size from a few rooms to over a hundred rooms and accompanied by circular kivas. In addition, many existing cliff dwellings were greatly enlarged. Population estimates for the main canyon during this period range as high as 800. Immigrants from Mesa Verde and Chaco Canyon, New Mexico moved into the area during this time, building impressive pueblos in the style of their respective homelands. Despite immigration and increased construction, population levels began to decline, due in part to changing environmental conditions. Agricultural productivity deteriorated as precipitation decreased, periodic droughts struck, the water table lowered, and soil erosion increased.

Although the Anasazi had enjoyed relatively peaceful lives for most of their history, this began to change in the eleventh century. It is not clear whether nomadic Athabaskan or Shoshonean Ute tribes began to raid the area from the north and east or if the conflict was internal, but by the late 13th century site selection appears clearly to have been based on the need for defense. Many focal sites were strategically built on steep hilltops or high on canyon walls in such a way that each was visible to the others for communication and coordination. A number of burials bearing signs of violent death have been found in the canyons.

The last construction tree-ring date in Canyon de Chelly is 1286; by the end of the thirteenth century the region had been entirely abandoned. As with the similar abandonment of the entire Four Corners Region, it is not known the exact reason or combination of reasons leading to this exodus. Drought, natural resource depletion, arroyo cutting and warfare are all possible explanations. The Anasazi of Canyon de Chelly likely joined other Anasazi immigrants in new pueblos to the south and east, where their descendents still live today.



Canyon de Chelly, Arizona (Page 3 of 3)

Historic Human Occupation

With the exception of sporadic Hopi occupation and farming, the Canyon de Chelly region remained unpopulated until Navajo people began to settle in the region in large numbers around 1750. Many of these settlers had been pushed out of former territories by pugnacious Ute tribes. The newly arrived Navajos learned agriculture from neighboring Pueblo peoples, whom they also raided for food and women. The canyon's reliable stream and fertile soils supported their crops, while the rocky alcoves provided refuge from attacking enemies such as the Ute and Comanche. As Spanish settlers encroached on the region in the late 18th century, the de Chelly Navajo often harbored fugitives from foreign rule, including Puebloans and other Navajo. Spanish attempts to subdue native peoples and convert them to Christianity were not well-received. The Navajo and other tribes often stole horses and livestock from the Spanish; many of these animals were brought to Canyon de Chelly.

In 1804, Spanish Lieutenant Antonio Narbona marched his men into Canyon de Chelly and attacked a group of women, children and elders hiding in what is now called Massacre Cave in Canyon del Muerto. One hundred and fifteen Navajos were killed and thirty-three taken captive in the two-day assault. Today, hundreds of bullet holes scar the cliff and bones of the victims remain scattered in the cave, untouched by the Navajos, as is custom. Raids and counter-raids continued for many decades, with both sides taking livestock and captives for slavery from each other. The situation only worsened after the U.S. gained its western territories in the Mexican War, leading to warring between Anglo-Americans and Navajos. Soldiers confiscated the Navajos' livestock and destroyed their crops. By the time Kit Carson arrived in 1863, the Navajos had little energy to resist, and the majority were marched off to Fort Sumner.

The Navajo returned to Canyon de Chelly from Fort Sumner in 1868, after a treaty was negotiated. Under the treaty terms, a 3.5 million acre Navajo reservation was created that encompassed Canyon de Chelly and the Chuska Mountains. Homes were rebuilt, flocks of sheep reestablished and fields cultivated, as warring and raiding became a thing of the past. Since then, the Navajos have remained in the canyons, both permanently and seasonally, tending fruit orchards and farming corn, melons, squash and beans. Overgrazing of large sheep herds on the rangeland has caused desertification of some pastures, as well as disastrous erosion. In the 1930s the U.S. government moved to drastically reduce herds, a difficult experience for these pastoral people. By 1935, the reservation area had been increased to its modern size of 18 million acres, greatly relieving grazing pressures as herdsmen were able to spread out over the region.

Canyon de Chelly was declared a national monument in 1931. In a rare arrangement with the National Park Service, tribal rights and land ownership were preserved in the park, with the Park Service and the Navajo Nation jointly managing the lands. Coal, uranium and oil mining on the reservation lands around the canyon, though controversial, have provided the Navajo people with a great financial boost. The schools, hospitals and roads of the large Navajo towns of Chinle just west of the monument and Window Rock south of the monument on the Defiance Plateau were largely financed by mining royalties.

Today the monument is a popular destination of the Four Corners area. Visitors come to view the spectacular ruins and scenery, as well as for recreation. In 1998, over 2 million visited the park. Also the Navajo exert strict controls over their activities, such large numbers of visitors take a toll on the monument and its residents.


--Researched and written by Shannon Kelly

Ld (Ld)
Username: Ld

Registered: 11-2005
 
Posted on Monday, October 30, 2006 - 11:45 pm:     

亞利桑那州(Arizona)東北角印第安人區八日遊照片及簡單說明

第一組:人景。該組照片大部份為老伴拍攝。

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兩者的食量相等,若用4x4擋,9 miles/gal左右.千萬別租此大胃王。

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攝于Canyon De Chelly's White house ruin 前。26年前,我與老伴第一次到此時,沒有鐵絲欄杆,可站在廢址前細看遺下古蹟,現只好隔欄遠眺。廢址前有一小河﹙溝﹚(wash),是到廢址前必經的,最難忘是河水水温冷得有如冰水一樣,赤脚過河,凍得两膝發抖。雖然此處是舊地從遊,但記憶模糊,白屋廢址800呎的懸崖峭壁和河水温度是我們26年後對 Canyon de Chelly 唯一的記憶。現已在小河上架有两臨時鐵橋,無須赤足涉水過河了,但河水因每日無數旅遊車經過,已混濁得很,不像以前清澈見底。

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Monument Valley之三姐妹,現加一兄弟。螳螂捕“光”,黄雀在後。

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大峽谷觀日出,是遊客每日的主要節目之一。可惜十月下旬,早上氣温極低,26度華氐左右,加上寒風從四面八方吹襲,沒有耐寒衣物,很難久留在觀景台上。還有十月的日出日落之位置改變,太陽不是從 Vishnu Temple 與 Wotans Throne 之間升起,失却了太陽未出已光芒四射的美景。少了不少攝影家、脚架和按快門聲,使觀景台顕得有點冷冷清清

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以上两張是遊大峽谷常見的現象,一家人坐在穿梳巴士站或景點附近,父母充當講觧員,對孩子講觧峽谷的生命與形成。在這嵯峨奇石的崖上,很有學堂氣氛。

這位年青韓國母親也算偉大了,夫婿跑去拍日落,她留後招顧兩幼孩。

大峽谷另一常見現象是外國遊客特別多,德、法、意、奥國、印度,韓、日、……。這是六遊大峽谷常見的。年齡也是老中青都有。美國遊客年齡老的較多,外國遊客較多屬於中青一代。但今次所見,老人特多。置身在他們當中,雖然還不断說這老人那老人,但自已身屬那一階段?這是自己的現在?抑或不遠的將來?老矣!回想當年,從 Rim 到谷底 Colorado River 來回只需六小時左右,猶以下去的速度比跌下去更快。現在背着相機袋在 Rim 上行走,都有輕微氣喘了。


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這是交配季節,Elk麇鹿到處可見。遊客對拍照與談論麋鹿的興趣比觀賞峽谷更大。真有風景那邊獨好之感。

第二組:Canyon de Chelly。

White house ruin 是 Canyon de Chelly 吸引遊客最有力的景點。這是此 National Monument(NM) 唯一無須印第安人導遊、收費或乘坐他們的 Shake and Bake 旅遊車而可以自行到達之景點。

至於為何稱之為白屋及其歷史,請到有關網站查看。但此景點能令攝影愛好者瘋狂得像書法愛好者追求王羲之蘭亭集序真迹一樣,原因是 1873年 Timothy O'Sullivan 在此拍下了一張經典黑白照片(待掃描後才刋登在本網站供大家欣賞)。然後1941年,著名風景攝影家Ansel Adams 又在此拍下了另一張幾乎一樣的黑白照片。這兩張照片各有所長,但後者只在原有基礎上再創作而矣。很難超越或挑戰 T.H O'Sullivan 原作。好像唐人馮承素、虞世南、褚遂艮摹蘭亭之墨迹一樣,不可能與原作有同等地位。縱使水平一樣,還是摹仿而矣。致於為何如此困難翻拍?我猜主要是光與時間這兩者可遇而不可求,就算碰對了角度,但不可能長年累月地等待光源的角度和強度出現在相同地方。不過發燒者之好愛,就在於明知不可為而為之。


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第三組:Monument Valley 紀念碑谷

我覺得紀念碑谷最美的地方是天大地大,雄偉的奇石是其次。猶以白雲藍天之日,看着天光雲影悠閒地徘徊在紅土的大地上,真能產生“喜茫茫空闊無邊”之感。剛巧在我門到達之日,幸運地遇上了如此藍天白雲。可惜只得半天如此好時光,當下午想在4:30關閉前回去拍日落時,便突然刮起狂風,沙塵滚滾,連眼也張不開,更不敢拿相機出來了。

如想進入紀念碑谷的時間是日落時分,最好是中午在谷北猶他州東南端的白人小鎮Bluff用午膳後,沿163公路經Mexican Hat進入。這樣可觀看日落時的彩霞和silhouette紀念碑谷。在這無邊無際蒼穹下,面對着景隨光换之良辰美景,不但是一種享受,而且是領悟宇宙奇妙和階及神明最佳之地方。


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第四組:Grand Canyon 大峽谷

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最後是從Kayenta到大峪谷途中之Navajo Monument

這埵a勢較高,當汽車開上7000呎時已看到初雪。一幅現成的銀裝素裹圖畫,就在眼前。
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林鼎